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Structure and function of cells essay help

Apr 24, 2018

ESSAY
‘The structure and importance of the plasma membrane found within and around all cells’
The plasma membrane surrounds all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have membrane bounded organelles whereas prokaryotic cells do not. The plasma membrane forms the boundary between the cell cytoplasm and the environment. Its function are to allow different environments to be established inside and outside the cell. It also controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
The cell surface membrane which surrounds all cells consists of many components, which together is referred to the fluid mosaic model. It is called fluid because the individual phospholipids can move relative to one another, making the membrane

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Glycolipids are an essential part of the cell membrane. They help determine our blood groups. The glycolipids act as receptors at the surface of the red blood cell, this is important as we can use this to classify our blood type which is critical during blood transfusions, as if we give the incorrect blood type the recipient’s immune system may detect these differences and treat the donated blood as not theirs and so the patient will die. Glycolipids can also act as cell receptors for molecules such as hormones during embryonic development.
The importance of the plasma membrane in keeping certain substances inside the cell is shown when someone has cholera. The bacteria, vibrio cholerae, starts to produce a toxic protein which has two parts. One of the parts binds to a specific carbohydrate receptor (a glycolipid) on the cell-surface membrane. Only the epithelial cells of the small intestines have the specific receptor which binds to the toxic, hence why it only effects this part of the body. The other toxic part enters the epithelial cells, which causes the ion channel of the cell-surface membrane to open, so the chorine ions which normal are contained within the epithelium cells floods into the lumen of the small intestines. This has serious effects on the body as it results in water loss from the blood and tissues which causes symptoms such as diarrhoea and dehydration.
Intrinsic proteins completely span the phospholipid bilayer from one side

I remembered some people who lived across the street from our home as we were being taken away. When I was a teenager, I had many after-dinner conversations with my father about our internment. He told me that after we were taken away, they came to our house and took everything. We were literally stripped clean. George Takei

In life, it is critical to understand what substances can permeate the cell membrane. This is important because the substances that are able to permeate the cell membrane can be necessary for the cell to function. Likewise, it is important to have a semi-permeable membrane in the cell due to the fact that it can help guard against harmful items that want to enter the cell. In addition, it is critical to understand how water moves through the cell through osmosis because if solute concentration is unregulated, net osmosis can occur outside or inside the cell, causing issues such as plasmolysis and cytolysis. The plasma membrane of a cell can be modeled various ways, but dialysis tubing is especially helpful to model what substances will diffuse or be transported out of a cell membrane. The experiment seeks to expose what substances would be permeable to the cell membrane through the use of dialysis tubing, starch, glucose, salt, and various solute indicators. However, before analyzing which of the solutes (starch, glucose, and salt) is likely to pass through the membrane, it is critical to understand how the dialysis tubing compares to the cell membrane. Dialysis tubing is made from regenerated cellulose or cellophane, and is used in clinical circumstances to ensure that molecule have a filtered flow, and that larger solute molecules do not enter the dialysis tubing. Like a cell membrane, dialysis tubing has a semi-permeable membrane, which allows small molecule to permeate through the membrane. Thus, the dialysis tubing mimics the diffusion and osmosis processes of the cell membrane. Although the dialysis tubing has a semi-permeable membrane, which mimics a cell, its structure is different. The membrane that surrounds the cell i... ... middle of paper ... ...ld move freely inside and outside of the cell, however, because there is a greater solute concentration inside the cell, the water would diffuse through osmosis into the cell model, increasing the final mass of the dialysis tubing and causing cytolysis. Works Cited Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al., New York: Garland Science; 2002. Buckley, James M. "[Regents Prep Living Environment] Laboratory: Indicators." [Regents Prep Living Environment] Laboratory: Indicators. N.p., 2003. Web. 12 Nov. 2013. DR. Jakubowski. "TRANSPORT AND KINETICS." BC Online: 6A: Passive and Facilitated Diffusion. N.p., 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 05 Nov. 2013. Reece, Jane B. Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections. San Francisco, CA.: Benjamin Cummings, 2012. Print. Sense, Fred. "How Does Starch Indicate Iodine?" General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Redox Reactions:. N.p., 2010. Web. 12 Nov. 2013.

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