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Jun 6, 2018

Citation Machine™ uses an easy to use 3 step process to create your citations

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to properly credit the information that they use. Its primary goal is to make it so easy for student researchers to cite their information sources, that there is virtually no reason not to

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Chicago Manual of Style or CMS is widely used in a publication of social sciences and historical journals. It is considered the most one of the most widely used and respected styles in the United States.

Table Of Contents

Turabian/Chicago Style Format

The general style citation follows these rules:

CMS is divided into four parts: Title Page, Main Body, and Bibliography. The title page should be the first cover page of the essay, the main body follows, and the bibliography is all the citations that you used for research.

Read more: How to format an essay

Title Page

In your title page, the spacing is a crucial aspect. Ask your teacher for specific details on how to structure your title page but the general instructions go as follows:

In-Text Citation

Parenthetical Citation should consist of:


“Philosophy should not be a core subject in university and school education. If a person doesn’t understand the fundamentals of philosophy, they will never be able to understand the grander scope and merit of the subject; thus, exposing it to them is a waste of the student’s and the professor's time. Philosophy is for the passionate, the inquisitive, and the truly brilliant.” (Trufold 1982, 32)

As mentioned previously, in a Chicago/Turabian citation style, you should include footnotes or endnotes each time you use a direct quote or a paraphrased summary of a source.

Both are acceptable in the Chicago/Turabian style. In either case, footnotes and endnotes begin with a superscript number with bibliographic information attached.

The first note for each source must include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and publication.
When you cite that same source again, the note only requires the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if the length of the title is >4) and page numbers. If you cite the same source and page more than two times, use the word “Ibid.” which means “from the same place.” If they are from different pages, use the word Ibid. followed by a page number.



A Chicago style bibliography is located at the end of your paper and lists all of your sources, including the ones already listed in the footnotes. Your bibliography should be:

How to Cite

Book (one author)

Book (two or more authors)

Book Chapter (Part of a book)


Journal Article

When citing an article, list specific pages in the footnote, but list the whole range of the article in the Bibliography.


Online sources (including scholarly articles) can be mentioned in the text or as a note and in turn omitted from the bibliography. For example: (“As of December 2017, the wall bordering Mexico and the United States will be built, as listed on the national United States Government website...”). If a more formal citation is required, it doesn’t have guidelines. Include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified.

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Essay Writing Advice From Our Professional Team

If your professor is extra picky about citations, then you are in the right place. This article is very helpful with deciphering exactly how to cite in the Chicago Manual style. One thing I want to reinforce is that the Chicago style splits into two documentation systems: notes and bibliography and author-date. If your instructor doesn’t articulate which style they are looking for, then you can make a choice between the two forms depending on the sources. The author-date system is more handy for sciences (natural and social) mainly because the sources are briefly cited in the text and appear in parenthesis with the author’s last name and publication. Notes and bibliography style is preferred by humanities (literature, history, etc.) That style provides more information on the sources. Make sure that the style you choose best fits your topic. Best of luck citing your essay and don’t forget to clarify things with your instructor!

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