Dedication examples for dissertation
Apr 5, 2018
COGNITIVE ISSUES IN AUTONOMOUS SPACECRAFT-CONTROL OPERATIONS: AN INVESTIGATION OF SOFTWARE-MEDIATED
DECISION MAKING IN A SCALED ENVIRONMENT
Elizabeth D. Murphy
Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland at College Park in
partial fulfillment of the requirements
of the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Professor Kent L. Norman, Chair
Professor Emerita, Nancy S. Anderson
Professor, Michael Dougherty
Professor Katherine J. Klein
Professor Christine M. Mitchell
Professor Ben Shneiderman
This work is dedicated to my husband, John A. Murphy, without whose caring support it would not have been possible, and to the memory of my parents, Hugh Vincent and Edna Sibley Drummond, who passed on a love of reading and respect for education.
Special thanks to the distinguished faculty members who served on my committee: Professors Kent L. Norman (chair), Nancy S. Anderson (Emerita), Michael Dougherty, Katherine J. Klein, Christine M. Mitchell, and Ben Shneiderman. As my advisor, Dr. Norman provided detailed guidance and encouragement throughout the course of preparing for and conducting the research. His belief that it was, indeed, possible to finish kept me going. Dr. Anderson served faithfully on the committee until circumstances prevented her from attending the defense. I am grateful for the helpful comments she provided on the draft. Dr. Dougherty kindly filled in for Dr. Anderson, and he provided insightful comments on short notice. Thanks to all my committee members for their support, patience, encouragement, and useful suggestions.
My thanks go to Walt Truszkowski and Sylvia Sheppard of the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center for financial support (NASA grant NAG5-3425), which provided equipment and personnel, and for their warm encouragement. Many NASA-Goddard personnel generously contributed their time and operational expertise to answering questions about spacecraft engineering and human decision-making in spacecraft control. They include Matthew Brandt, David Bradley, Matthew Fatig, Leigh Gatto, Peter Gonzales, Kevin Hartnett, Cathy Penafiel, Christopher Rouff, Robert Sodano, Stacey St. Pierre, Herman Williams, and William Worrall. Thanks to personnel at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory for their hospitality and willingness to provide information about the missions under their control: Ray Harvey (MSX Mission Manager), Madeleine Marshall (NEAR Mission Director), and Robert Nelson (NEAR anomaly specialist).
Major programming issues were resolved by Daniel Y. Moshinsky, an outstanding undergraduate laboratory assistant. Thanks to Daniel for his patience with changing requirements and for brilliantly overcoming many technical obstacles in implementing the experimental simulation as well as the on-line test of spatial ability. Thanks to Kirk Norman, who performed other important programming tasks. Several undergraduate laboratory assistants helped in administering the experimental treatment. I'm grateful to Kelly Hennessy, Daniel Moshinsky, and Kirk Norman for their work with participants.
Thanks to a classmate, Heather Tedesco, for providing materials from her doctoral research, from which many questions were drawn for the distractor survey. Special thanks to many friends who cheered me on from the beginning, especially Lisa Stewart, Paula VanBalen, Kelly Harwood, and Renate Roske-Shelton. For the suggestion that planted the seed, thanks to Dr. Robert Holt of George Mason University, a great teacher. And special thanks to my family for their good-natured forebearance with the process and for their pride in this accomplishment. It was a team effort.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables
List of Figures
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Definition of Terms 3
1.3 Literature Review 5
1.3.1 Effects of Automation
on Human Performance 6
1.3.2 Trust versus Over-reliance
on Automation 6
1.3.3 Passive Monitoring in
Supervisory Control 11
1.3.4 Cognitive Demands in
Autonomous, ASP-based Systems 15
1.3.5 Limitations in Decision
1.3.6 Information Display Needs
in On-Call Situations 20
1.3.7 Performance Effects of
1.4 Research Design 26
1.4.1 Independent Variables 26
1.4.2 Dependent Variables 28
1.5 Hypotheses 30
Chapter 2. Method 35
2.1 Participants 35
2.2 Materials 36
2.3 Simulation Environment 37
2.4 Procedure 40
2.4.1 Pilot Studies 41
2.4.2 Pre-Experimental Procedure 41
2.4.3 Experimental Procedure 43
2.4.4 Data Capture and Analysis 47
Chapter 3. Results 48
3.1 Effects of Practice 48
3.2 Monitoring versus On-Call
Group Differences 48
3.3 Effects of Display-Selection
3.4 Effects of Display Type 55
3.5 Anchoring Effect of Agent
3.6 Relationships between Subjective
Confidence Ratings and Performance
3.7 Attitudes toward Automation
(Reliability and Trust) 63
3.8 Perceived Need to Monitor
Automated Systems 64
3.9 Effects of Differences in SVA 64
Chapter 4. Discussion, Design Implications,
and Suggestions for Further Research 75
4.1 Monitoring versus On-Call
4.2 Levels of Automation 79
4.3 Table versus Bar Chart versus
Line Graph 80
4.4 Anchoring and Adjustment 81
4.5 Subjective Confidence Predicts
4.6 Novice Effects in Attitude Findings 85
4.7 No Change in Rated Need to Monitor 86
4.8 SVA as a Key Factor in Human-
Computer Interaction 87
4.9 General Discussion 91
Appendix A: Experimental Materials 94
Consent Form 94
Pre-Experimental Automation Survey 97
Post-Experimental Automation Survey 99
Appendix B: MOCHA Screen Shots 100
Appendix C: Training and Test Materials
MOCHA Problem Descriptions with
Agent Reasoning 110
Sample Status Messages for the
Monitoring Condition 115
Instructions for Research
Participants and Training in
the Experimental Task 116
Training in System Components 122
Appendix D: Distractor Survey for the
LIST OF TABLES
1. Self-reported Experience
on a Nine-Point Scale 29
2. Group Means and Standard Deviations
on the Main Dependent Variables 42
3. Tests of Between-Groups Differences
for Accuracy and Speed 42
4. Interaction of MOCHA Grouping Condition
and Sex on Test Score (Accuracy) 43
5. Summary of Linear Regression Analysis
for Display-Selection GroupÕs Prediction
of the Number of Bar Charts Displayed
for Test Tasks 45
6. Summary of Linear Regression Analysis
for Display-Selection GroupÕs Prediction
of the Number of Timelines Displayed
for Test Tasks 48
7. Correlations of Percent Correct Using
Different Display Formats on Practice
Problems and Test Problems 49
8. Mean Percent Correct Using Different
Display Formats Across Practice and
Test Problems 49
9. Correlations of Percent Correct Using
Different Display Formats on Test
10. Mean Percent Correct Using Different
Display Formats on Test Problems 50
11. Mean Task-Completion Times Using
Different Display Formats on Test
12. Descriptive Statistics for Mean Subjective
Confidence, Mean Test Accuracy, and Mean
Task-Completion Time 53
13. Summary of Linear Regression for Mean
Subjective Confidence as a Hypothesized
Predictor of Mean Test Accuracy and Mean
Test Task-Completion Time 54
14. Score Ranges, Mean Test Scores (Accuracy)
and Standard Deviations for the Three SVA
15. Pre-Test and Post-Test Ratings of the Need
to Monitor Automated Systems by SVA Groups
on a Nine-Point Scale 58
List of Figures
1. Research design 27
2. Mean task-completion time (in seconds)
reaches asymptote over six practice
3. Interaction between grouping condition
(monitoring versus on-call) and sex
on decision accuracy (mean test score) 53
4. SVA groups differ on decision accuracy as
measured by test score 66
5. Scatter plot of SVA score and test score
for men (R2 = .28) 71
6. Scatter plot of SVA score and test score
for women (R2 = .12) 72
7. Welcome screen with pre-entered subject
number (125) and monitoring condition
8. Sample problem from the VZ-2 test of spatial-
visualization ability (SVA)
9. Hierarchy of MOCHA components used for pre-
10. Monitoring condition: Status messages
coming up in the Description area in-
11. Sample MOCHA problem with system data
displayed in a table
12. Sample MOCHA problem with system data
displayed in a bar chart
13. Sample MOCHA problem with system data
displayed in a line graph
14. Manual display mode: Subject was
given a choice of the display format
to be presented (table, bar chart, or
15. The Details dialog box required the
subject to provide an explanation for
deciding that, in this case, the actual
problem was the problem as reported by
the advanced software process in the
16. Final screen of the MOCHA experiment
How To Write A Proper Dissertation Dedication: Tips & Examples
A dissertation dedication is a section that includes details about anyone that has helped during the time that you have been doing your course. You can find out more information on who to include later on in this article. Is a dissertation dedication needed?
Whilst many sections of a dissertation are compulsory, the dedication is entirely optional. As a result, it is down to personal choice as to whether or not you choose to include a dedication in your paper.
Where to include a dissertation page
If you do choose to include a dedication in your paper then it should be positioned after the approval page. It is worth noting, though, that as an optional extra, the dedication page is not included in the word count, nor should it be numbered or listed in the table of contents.
Style guidelines for writing a proper dissertation dedication
Whilst you may need to follow very strict writing and style guidelines whilst writing the rest of your paper, there are no formatting or style requirements whilst writing a dedication. As a result, it makes it a lot easier to express yourself as genuinely as possible without worrying about falling foul of any formatting requirements.
Of course, despite not having any strict guidelines to follow, it is advisable to write the section as professionally as possible. If you are choosing to have the rest of the work proofread and edited, then there is no harm in getting this section checked over as well. Even if it is an optional extra, it is important that you maintain high standards throughout the entirety of the paper.
Who to include in a dissertation dedication
If you’re think about including a dedication then you may be wondering who what to include in the section. Essentially, you can include whoever you like and it will generally be concerned with anyone that you feel has supported you during your graduate studies. Quite often, people may include teachers, friends, parents and other relatives, and anyone else that has lent their support.
It is worth noting, however, that you shouldn’t necessarily use the dedication to recognise anyone who may have helped you with any of your academic research. Instead, if you wish to show your gratitude for any support of this nature, then it is best to do so in the acknowledgements page.
Some people go to priests; others to poetry; I to my friends. Virginia Woolf I believe in the brotherhood of man, all men, but I don't believe in brotherhood with anybody who doesn't want brotherhood with me. I believe in treating people right, but I'm not going to waste my time trying to treat somebody right who doesn't know how to return the treatment. Malcolm X
It’s My Life
My name is Ann Smith. I am a senior in high school. Everyone can agree that I am a good student and that I like to study. My favorite subjects are chemistry and biology. I am going to enter the university because my goal is to study these subjects in future and to become a respected professional in one of the fields.
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Every time I do my best to be a…
Some Essential Tips On How To Write An Essay About Yourself
No matter what’s the purpose of your essay, there is a preset number of points that you will be expected to address.
The main line should be that you are not a robot, and that it is your feelings and emotions that define you as a personality. Do not get stuck with material possessions and what you have achieved in life. That has to do only with a small portion of who you are.
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Avoid Unclear Definitions
It is really easy to get lost when you are writing something as vague and as perspective-oriented as an essay about yourself. People tend to choose a number of themes of who they are and try to describe them all.
That would be very confusing for the reader. Not to mention that it would be hard to write and navigate in between those themes. After all, very few people know you well enough, and it is almost certain that your essay is going to be read mostly by strangers or just people who know you marginally.
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If you are going to write your own essay from the scratch, our manual on «How to write an essay» will be useful for you.