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Apr 16, 2018

Introduction and Review

 Origin, Purpose, Value and Limitation  A technique for analyzing historical documents.  Known elsewhere as Document Based Questions (DBQ) ◦ POV (Point of View) ◦ Frame of reference  The key skill needed for answering the questions on Paper 1 of your IB Exam in History.

 What is the origin of the document/artifact? ◦ The more you know about where a document is coming from, the easier it is to ascertain purpose, value and limitation. ◦ In order to get a complete picture of an event or era, it is necessary to consult multiple--and often contradictory—sources  Make direct comparisons!!

 Primary or Secondary? ◦ Useful both for establishing the origin ◦ And for setting up your analysis of  Purpose  Why was this document produced?  Values & Limitations  Secondary sources are almost always interpretations to a degree ◦ Definitions vary widely, but:

 Primary ◦ letter, journal, interview, speeches, photos, paintings, etc ◦ Primary sources are created by someone who is the ―first person‖ ◦ Primary documents have not been filtered through interpretation or evaluation by others.

 Secondary ◦ materials that filter primary sources through interpretation or evaluation ◦ Books commenting on a historical incident in history are secondary sources ◦ Political cartoons? (Could be both…)

 Questions to ask about the document: ◦ Who created it? ◦ Who is the author? ◦ When was it created? ◦ When was it published? ◦ Where was it published? ◦ Who is publishing it? ◦ Is there anything we know about the author that is pertinent to our evaluation?

 ―This primarydocument is an excerpt from ‗The Travels of IbnBattuta‘, a collection of travel writings from the Moroccan writer and Islamic judge, IbnBattuta who journeyed across Asia and Africa (the Islamic world) in the 14th Century.‖

 Think as the author of the document (put yourself in her shoes) ◦ Why does this document exist? ◦ Why did the author create this piece of work? What is the intent? ◦ Why did the author choose this particular format? ◦ Who is the intended audience? Who was the author thinking would receive this? ◦ What does the document ―say‖? ◦ Can it tell you more than is on the surface?

 Always use evidence! ◦ ―The document means this…because it is supported by x evidence.‖ ◦ ―X evidence suggests this document means…‖  Not vague speculation! ◦ ―I think this document means…‖

 ―As shown in the text where he clearly addresses his audience as fellow Muslims, Ibn Battuta‘s primary motivation for writing his travel journal was to provide a record of foreign nations and peoples. It is very likely he did this to prove the superiority of Islamic culture over others, which is suggested by his frequent references to the barbaric practices (like eating dogs) of the people in China.‖

 Stems directly from O & P ◦ Based on who wrote it, when/where it came from and why it was created…what value does this document have as a piece of evidence?  What can we tell about the author from the piece?  What can we tell about the time period from the piece?  Under what circumstances was the piece created and how does the piece reflect those circumstances?  What can we tell about any controversies from the piece?  Does the author represent a particular ‗side‘ of a controversy or event?  What can we tell about the author‘s perspectives from the piece?  What was going on in history at the time the piece was created and how does this piece accurately reflect it?

 ―IbnBattuta‘s travel writing is valuable because it provides an eyewitness account of the 14th Century Afro-Eurasian world from the perspective of an Islamic scholar. Because IbnBattuta could speak Arabic and was trained as a judge, he was a much desired guest and was able to visit many more lands than most of the other people alive at the time. This also shows the extent of the influence of Islam during this period: IbnBattuta was able to travel from North Africa to China speaking only Arabic and associating almost exclusively with other Muslims.‖

 The journal entry was written by President Truman prior to the dropping of the atomic bomb on Japan and demonstrates the moral dilemma he was having in making the decision of whether to drop the bomb or not. It shows that he was highly conflicted about the decision and very aware of the potential consequences both for diplomatic/military relations and for the health and welfare of the Japanese citizens.

 At what point does this source cease to be of value to us as historians? ◦ What part of the story can we NOT tell from this document? ◦ How could we verify the content of the piece? ◦ Does this piece inaccurately reflect anything about the time period? ◦ What does the author leave out and why does he/she leave it out (if you know)? ◦ What is purposely not addressed?

 Bias: Being biased does not limit the value of a source! ◦ All documents are ―biased‖ to a degree  Nothing is objective ◦ If you choose to discuss bias be SPECIFIC:  Who is it biased towards?  Who is it biased against?  What part of a story does it leave out? (because of bias)  What part of the story is MISSING because of parts left out? ◦ No sweeping generalizations!!  ―He‘s biased because he‘s English…‖

 Timeframe ◦ Do not suggest that a document that does not have knowledge of a later event is limited due to this. ◦ ―Document A (from 1945) does not describe western reaction to the construction of the Berlin Wall (in 1961).‖

 On the other hand, Ibn Battuta‘s perspective is limited in several ways. First, because he associated almost exclusively with other Muslims, his appraisal of other societies and people cannot be taken at face-value—he states clearly that in China he spent most of his time indoors. Second, Ibn Battuta was chauvinistic: he regards the Chinese as infidels who eat pigs and dogs at a time when China was probably the most sophisticated and cultured empire in Afro-Eurasia. He cannot overcome his own cultural standards to objectively analyze a foreign one. Finally, Ibn Battuta was a hypocrite: although he accused the Maldive Island women of being immodest and uncivilized for going about bare-breasted, he married several times while in the Maldives! Clearly the writing of any chronicler willing to change his tune so easily must be taken with a grain of salt.

 The origins of the film "Downfall" were two German men: Oliver Hirschbiegel, who directed it; Bernd Eichinger, who wrote it. They used several memoirs of important roles within the National Socialist party of Germany during WWII. The purpose of this movie is to portray the indoctrination of the German people, as well as their innocence under the command of Hitler and the Nazi party.  This movie is valuable for historians studying WWII because it provides 1st person accounts on the war from the Nazi perspective. Another value in the film is the methods of indoctrination provided throughout the movie.  Limitations include the movies origins because it is from German citizens which means they may have leaned toward shedding a good light on the Nazis. Another example of a limitation would be the memoirs used for the making of this movie. This is because the memoirs were written after and/or during Russian occupation; the memoirs could be fabricated so as to lead one to give sympathy to people of great crime. For example, the film portrays the SS doctor Schenck as being a humanitarian, however, his history shows him being removed from positions prior to WWII because he was doing unethical things (things that are not very humanitarian). Basically, there is a good chance the memoirs were buffed and shined so that the Russians would not kill or imprison them.

Observation (Physical Description) Analysis (OPVL+) • What do you see? • Colors, shapes, sizes, background, environment, people, etc. •What do you hear? •Sounds, voices, music, narration, etc. •What do you feel? •Emotions, feelings, warnings, portents, etc. •Origin: What is the source of the artifact? •Purpose: Why was the artifact created? To what end or purpose? •Value: How valuable is this source—and why? •Limitations: What limits the value of the source? •+: What other critical observations can you make about this artifact? What does what you saw, heard and felt mean?

Observation (Physical Description) Analysis (OPVL+)

 Origin:  Purpose:  Values w/evidence: ◦ 1 ◦ 2  Limitations w/evidence : ◦ 1 ◦ 2

 ―This primarydocument is an excerpt from ‗The Travels of IbnBattuta‘, a collection of travel writings from the Moroccan writer and Islamic judge, IbnBattutawho journeyed across Asia and Africa (the Islamic world) in the 14th Century.‖

 ―As shown in the text where he clearly addresses his audience as fellow Muslims, IbnBattuta‘s primary motivation for writing his travel journal was to provide a record of foreign nations and peoples. It is very likely he did this to prove the superiority of Islamic culture over others, which is suggested by his frequent references to the barbaric practices (like eating dogs) of the people in China.‖

Bill Tolley OPVL Analysis for The Travels of IbnBattuta This primary document is an excerpt from ‗The Travels of IbnBattuta‘, a collection of travel writings from the Moroccan writer and Islamic judge, IbnBattuta who journeyed across Asia and Africa (the Islamic world) in the 14th Century. As shown in the text where he clearly addresses his audience as fellow Muslims, IbnBattuta‘s primary motivation for writing his travel journal was to provide a record of foreign nations and peoples. It is very likely he did this to prove the superiority of Islamic culture over others, which is suggested by his frequent references to the barbaric practices (like eating dogs) of the people in China. IbnBattuta‘s travel writing is valuable because it provides an eyewitness account of the 14th Century Afro-Eurasian world from the perspective of an Islamic scholar. Because IbnBattuta could speak Arabic and was trained as a judge, he was a much desired guest and was able to visit many more lands than most of the other people alive at the time. This also shows the extent of the influence of Islam during this period: IbnBattuta was able to travel from North Africa to China speaking only Arabic and associating almost exclusively with other Muslims. On the other hand, Ibn Battuta‘s perspective is limited in several ways. First, because he associated almost exclusively with other Muslims, his appraisal of other societies and people cannot be taken at face-value—he states clearly that in China he spent most of his time indoors. Second, Ibn Battuta was chauvinistic: he regards the Chinese as infidels who eat pigs and dogs at a time when China was probably the most sophisticated and cultured empire in Afro-Eurasia. He cannot overcome his own cultural standards to objectively analyze a foreign one. Finally, IbnBattuta was a hypocrite: although he accused the Maldive Island women of being immodest and uncivilized for going about bare-breasted, he married several times while in the Maldives! Clearly the writing of any chronicler willing to change his tune so easily must be taken with a grain of salt.

 Read and annotate the OPVL grading rubric ◦ Make sure you understand how your group will be graded today!

Documents Analysts 1-8 + 17 Maps are abbreviated to a brief bullet point list of their values Images within documents must be included in the document‘s analysis. Teams: 2,4,6 9-16 + 17 Maps are abbreviated to a brief bullet point list of their values Images within documents must be included in the document‘s analysis. Teams: 1,3,5

 Each group must provide OPVL analysis for ◦ Empires of Tea ◦ The Nehru reading ◦ 1 document from each of the document clusters at the end of the play (3 total)  These analyses will be shared with the class via the document camera, so have one student in each group neatly copy the agreed upon analysis ◦ All students must complete this work and have it available in their binders

The Real Form of Document Analysis Exam Paper, Paper 1

 5 Documents ◦ 1 image (map, cartoon, photo) ◦ 4 brief documents ◦ These documents are unseen (sort of)  4 Questions ◦ Q1. is split into two parts (A & B): very basic analysis ◦ Q2. is a comparative question on 2 documents ◦ Q3. is an OPVL question on 2 documents ◦ Q4. is a mini-essay response in which you must incorporate all 5 documents, with direct references, and “own knowledge”—clear and concrete examples of outside information not found in the documents.

 You will receive 5 minutes reading time at the beginning of the exam. You may not touch your pen during these 5 minutes.  There will always be a statement that tells you the overarching subject of the exam. Read it! ◦ EX: These questions relate to the development European rivalries during the Age of Imperialism.  Then, it is my strong recommendation, nay— order!—that you read the Qs before the Ds. Reading without knowing what you are reading for is a waste of time!

Marking Guidelines  What, according to Source A, was the reality of the ―White Man‘s Burden‖? ◦ The image may be in any order within the documents.  IB Grading: ―Award [1 mark] for each relevant point up to a maximum of [3 marks].‖  What are 3 relevant points you can draw from this cartoon?

 What message is conveyed by source…? ◦ Straightforward responses. ◦ No need to over-interpret or stretch—the answers should be obvious to you. ◦ Any of the sources may be chosen for this Q.  IB Grading: ―Award [1 mark] for each valid point up to a maximum of [2 marks].‖

 Compare and contrast the views expressed about […some aspect of imperialism or the other subjects we study…] in Sources C and D. ◦ Any of the sources may be chosen for this Q. ◦ Your answer must address similarities and differences. ◦ Your analysis should be running—not a block about Source C followed by a block about Source D.  IB Grading: ―If only one source is discussed award a maximum of [2 marks]. If the two sources are discussed separately award [3 marks] or with excellent linkage [4–5 marks]. For maximum [6 marks] expect a detailed running comparison/contrast.‖

 With reference to their origins and purpose, discuss the value and limitations of Source A and Source E for historians studying the…[topic of imperialism addressed by the exam] ◦ You should know how to do OPVL very well by now. ◦ Please note that you will do OPVL analysis for 2 documents in this response. ◦ Any of the documents may be chosen for this Q. ◦ Follow the form we have been practicing extensively, but in two separate responses for the two separate documents.  IB Grading: ―Ideally there will be a balance between the two sources, and each one can be marked out of [3 marks], but allow a [4/2 mark] split. If only one source is assessed, mark out of [4 marks]. For a maximum [6 marks] candidates must refer accurately to origin and purpose, and value and limitations‖.

 Using these sources and your own knowledge, analyse how…[something concerning the topic addressed by the paper] ◦ Your response must take the form of a mini-essay based on the documents. You should have a clear answer to the prompt as offered, but you do not need all of the various elements we discuss for other essays. ◦ You must address all the documents in this mini- essay—direct citation is required, direct quotation is desired. ◦ You must employ CONCRETE ―own knowledge‖ not found in the documents.

Unacceptable examples Acceptable examples  ―Other forms of imperialism existed in other places…‖  ―Events from other imperial territories show this as well…‖  ―Colonialism had been around for a long time…‖  ―Many documents show how this was true…‖  ―Lots of historians and observers would argue…‖  Compared to the French rule in Indochina…‖  ―The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 shows…‖  ―Earlier imperial wars in like the 7 Years War and the Opium Wars show…‖  ―The writing of imperialists like Stanley Livingstone…‖  ―From the perspective of Jawaharlal Nehru..‖

Final Questions?

Good-looking people are always looking for other good-looking people. Helen Fisher

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