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Photonic crystal biosensor thesis paper

Jun 1, 2018

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Current Group Members

Photo of the Photonics group taken during their 2015 Away Day in the Yorkshire Dales

Prof. Thomas F Krauss

Image of Thomas Krauss

Following a PhD in semiconductor ring lasers (1989-1992) at Glasgow University, UK, Thomas Krauss initiated research on planar photonic crystals in 1993. His work on fundamental concepts in photonic crystals, including his Nature paper in 1996, was pivotal for transforming photonic crystals from a scientific curiosity to the essential building block in photonics that they are today. He became a full Professor at St Andrews in 2000 where he established a 15-20 strong research group and a nanofabrication laboratory. He developed the slow light concept in photonic crystal waveguides and conducted, with collaborators, a number of seminal experiments, including work on ultrasmall switches and efficient nonlinear effects. Following 12 years of successful research at St Andrews, including being Head of School 2009-2012, he relocated with his group to York University, UK, in early 2013, where they soon completed setting up a new suite of nanophotonics fabrication and characterisation laboratories.


Telephone: 01904 322279 E-mail: thomas.krauss(at)

Dr Christopher Reardon

Image of Christopher Reardon

Christopher received his PhD from the University of St Andrews in 2009.  Since then he has worked with Prof. Thomas Krauss as a Post-doctoral fellow, taking on responsibility for the day-to-day running of the microphotonics research group.  In 2013, Christopher moved with Thomas to start a new research group at the University of York.  While at York, Christopher has been involved in the design and building of a new state-of-the-art cleanroom facility based at the York Nanocentre, he has also been instrumental in the setting up of the new Photonics group's optical laboratories based at the Department of Physics.  As part of his duties Christopher has built a proprietary reactive ion etching system based upon a design by Prof. Thomas Krauss.  Christopher has expertise in many aspects of micro/nano-fabrication including both photo- and electron-beam lithography, wet and dry etching, and thin-film deposition (using both a proprietary sputtering system, again designed and built in-house and thermal/electron-beam evaporation).

Christopher's project

Christopher is not supported by any one project grant, this gives him the flexibility to work within many areas.  Recently he has worked in such varied areas as MidIR photonic crystals, On-chip quantum optics, terahertz generation, and all-silicon light emission.  Christopher's other duties include the upkeep of the research group's website, general purchasing for the group, the running of both the group's cleanroom facility and photonics laboratories, the chairing of group activities such as our bi-monthly journal club and group meetings.


Telephone: 01904 322701 E-mail: christopher.reardon(at)

Dr Yue Wang

Image of Yue Wang

Yue was born in Hubei province in China. She graduated from the East China Normal University in Shanghai with a BEng degree in Electronic Science & Technology in 2007. The following year she went on to receive an MSc degree in Photonics and Optoelectronic Devices jointly from the Universities of St Andrews and Heriot Watt University in Edinburgh. In September 2008 she start a PhD in the Organic Semiconductor Optoelectronics group at the Univerisity of St Andews under the supervision of Dr Graham Turnbull and Prof. Ifor Samuel. Her PhD research concerned the development of low threshold organic semiconductor lasers. In 2012 Yue completed her PhD with a Springer Best Thesis Prize and successfully won a EPSRC Doctoral Prize Fellowship to develop a novel multifunctional explosive sensing array in St Andrews.

Yue's Project

In Septermber 2013 she joined the photonics group at the University of York, and began working on the Structured Light Programme project.


Telephone: 01904 322700 E-mail:

Dr Christian Schuster

‌Christian, born at the foot of the Kilimanjaro (Tanzania), started his studies in physics at Tuebingen (Germany), before continuing at Trento (Italy) with a BSc in nuclear physics. Due to the program being split between two universities, he received a German Diplom in nanotechnology and an Italian MSc in silicon electronics. Christian then moved to St Andrews to start his PhD project in silicon photonics as a Marie-Curie Fellow, he is now finishing this work at York, which has turned out to be a very fulfilling experience.

Christian's Project

Christian's research interests lie in the area of photovoltaics, i.e. the conversion of light into electricity. His PhD project focuses on the control of light via surface nanostructures: the project's final goal is to trap as much light as possible in a thin absorbing slab, as today's solar cells are mostly made of thick layers. However, while reducing the thickness means less material and lower costs, any increase in optical losses has to be compensated by novel and smart optical design -- a challenge that is hoped will boost the next generation of solar cells.


Telephone:   E-mail: christian.schuster(at)

Dr Daan Stellinga

Image of Daan Stellinga

Daan Stellinga received his BSc degree in Physics in 2010 from Leiden University, located in the Netherlands, and obtained his MSc in Experimental Physics in 2012 at the same university. During this time he completed an internship at the FOM Institute AMOLF in Amsterdam. He is currently pursuing a PhD in Physics at York University. Daan's research interests lie predominantly in the area of light-matter interaction in photonic structures.

Daan's Project

Daan's current projects include phase front engineering using guided mode resonances in silicon high contrast gratings, and investigating scattering losses and other effects in mid-IR photonic crystal waveguides.


Telephone: 01904 322701 E-mail: dps509(at)

Dr José Juan Colás

Image of Jose Juan Colas

José Juan Colás (Onil, Spain) is a Ph. D. student in the Photonics Research Group at the University of York. His research interests include optical label-free biosensors as both surface chemistry and functionalisation.

In 2010, he completed a BSc degree in technical Telecommunications Engineering from the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain, whose final degree project involved the design and implementation of a Sub-Carrier Multiplexed Quantum Key Distribution (SCM-QKD) system at the Optical and Quantum Communications Group (OQCG) of the iTEAM Research Institute (Valencia, Spain). In addition to University prizes, he was awarded both the best final degree project of Spain from the Spanish association of technical Telecommunications Engineering and a second prize for the best transcript of records of Spain in 2010. After collaborating with the Communications Department (DCOM) of the UPV in 2012, he then went on to receive an MSc in Telecommunications Engineering from the UPV in 2013. During the same year, he joined the Photonics Research Group at IMEC (Ghent, Belgium), where he was involved in the design of resonator-based SOI label-free biosensors with integrated spectrometers. Since September 2013, he has been with the Photonics Research Group at the University of York working toward his PhD degree in the field of optical label-free biosensors.

José's Project

Under the guidance of both Dr Steve Johnson and Professor Thomas Krauss, his multi-disciplinary research focuses on the fabrication and development of dynamic and switchable optical label-free biosensors.


Telephone: 01904 322701 E-mail: jose.juancolas(at)

Dr Donato Conteduca

Photo of Donato Conteduca

Donato graduated from Politecnico di Bari (Italy) with a MSc degree in Electronic Engineering in 2013 with an internship at the Microphotonics and Photonic Crystals Group at University of St. Andrews (Scotland) under the supervision of Prof. Thomas Krauss.

In January 2014 he started his PhD in the Optoelectronics Laboratory of Politecnico di Bari. His PhD research concerned the design and fabrication of an optofluidic system for optical trapping of sub-micrometer particles. In 2015 and 2016 he spent most of his PhD as a visitor in the Photonics group at York University for his experimental activities.

In January 2017, Donato joined the group as a research assistant involved in the project “Challenging the Limits of Photonics: Structured Light” funded by EPSRC. His activities concern the study and fabrication of an optical system for the control and manipulation of nanoparticles in air using optically-based techniques.

Donato's Project

Donato’s research interests are in the field of silicon photonics, focusing on configurations and techniques proposed for the optimization of light-matter interaction with integrated photonic devices. His background is mainly concerned in the study and fabrication of photonic crystals and plasmonic nanoantennas.


Telephone: 01904 322701 E-mail: donato.conteduca(at)

Dr Jiahui Wang

Amna Safdar

Photograph of Amna Safda

Amna comes from a small town in Pakistan called Mian Channu, and completed her BS in Physics from Bahauddin Zakria University (BZU), Mulan, Pakistan. In 2013, she graduated with an MS degree in Materials and Surface Engineering from the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan and after this spent one year as a Research Assistant in School of Chemical and Material Engineering (SCME), at the same university, due to her interest in Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) based Thin film Solar Cell Technology. In November 2014, she joined the Photonics Research Group as a PhD student.

Amna's Project

Amna's research is now more focused on the fabrication of tandem solar cells. That are a combination of different junctions which include silicon based solar cells employing interdigitated back contacts along with integrated high efficiency organic materials. These tandem solar cells will be made to work even better by using 2-terminal and 4-terminal schemes and incorporating novel light trapping optical grating designs.


Telephone: 01904 322698 E-mail: as1997(at)

Lewis Reeves

Photograph of Lewis Reeves

Lewis studied physics at the University of York, graduating in July 2015 with a MPhys degree. During his final year he worked in the Photonics group on a project to optimise Reactive Ion Etching for photonic devices. Since then he has worked with our bespoke Pulsed DC Magnetron sputtering system with an emphasis on reactively sputtered thin films. Lewis started his PhD in October 2015 within the Photonics group working on light emission from photonic crystals for the EPSRC Project “Seamless Integration of Functional Materials for Advanced Photonics (SeaMatics)”.


Telephone: 01904 322699 E-mail: lr674(at)

Giampaolo Pitruzzello

Photo of Giampaolo Pitruzzello

‌Giampaolo was born in Siracusa, Sicily, Italy. He received a BSc (2013) in Physics from University of Catania, and is now studying for his Masters Degree in Physics, with a focus on Condensed Matter Physics and Nanotechnology. He is also enrolled at the Scuola Superiore di Catania, an institute within the university which offers high-level education beyond the standard college programs, an interdisciplinary environment and full scholarships to a limited number of students upon fulfillment of rigorous requirements. He is currently a visiting student within the Photonics group at University of York, working on his MSc thesis. The project is focused on the realization and characterization of a novel photonic crystal designed silicon bolometer in the near IR spectral window.

Giampaolo's project

Giampaolo will start his PhD in the Photonics group in January 2016, working in the field of Biophotonics.


Telephone: 01904 322699 E-mail: gp744(at)

Haneen Aboobacker

Photo of Haneen Aboobacker

Haneen was born in Malappuram, Kerala, India. He recieved his BSc in Physics (2015) from the University of Calicut, and is now studying for a Masters Degree in Photonics at the Department of Atomic and Molecular physics, Manipal University.

Haneen's project

Haneen is currently working on his MSc project within the Photonics group at the University of York. His project is focused on the miniaturization of the recently introduced chirped grating biosensor which allows label-free biosensing.  The driving idea behind this project is to decrease the foot print of the sensor and thereby develop a stand alone device, which could be further developed for medical applications.

Past Group Members

Abdul Shakoor

Andrea Di Falco

Annett Klemm

Armando Ricciardi

Arran Gillies

Bryan O'Regan

Callum Smith

Christian Reimer

Daryl Beggs

Dominik Szymanski

Douglas McRobbie

Emiliano Rezende-Martins

Fengqiao Dong

George Robb

Graham Triggs

Isabella Rey

Juntao Li

Kapil Debnath

Karl Welna

Kezheng Li

Khaled Mnaymneh

Marcel Spurny

Marco Grande

Mark Scullion

Maria Kotlyar

Maria Dienerowitz

Martin Ploschner

Matthias Fischer

M. Umar Khan

Paolo Cardile

Pedro Damas

Peter Reader-Harris

Praveen Ashok

Rob Marchington

Sebastian Schulz

Simone Portalupi

Stephen Moore

Tim James

Tom White

William Whelan-Curtin

Yikun Liu

A two dimensional photonic crystal biosensor implemented by waveguides and microcavity is theoretically investigated. The designed structure has high quality factor about 15,000 and sensitivity approximately 141.67   nm/RIU, which are important parameters in biosensing applications. Also there is a linear dependency between resonant wavelength shift and refractive index changes. Since water is the main component of human organism, the temperature and wavelength dependence of proposed microcavity is investigated. The results show that the structure has good temperature stability. The temperature sensitivity is about −0.0142   nm/°C.

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