Writing a research paper powerpoint presentation
Apr 15, 2018
Title: Writing a Research Paper:
Writing a Research Paper
- Everything you will ever need to know and more
- MATTERS OF STYLE FORMAT
- Alex Haley. (n.d.) Retrieved September 6, 2002,
- Liukkonen, P. (2003). Alex Palmer Haley.
Retrieved September 6, 2006, fromhttp//www.kirjas
- Smith, Jane. (2005, January). The Life and Times
of Alex Haley. Biography Magazine, pp. 23-33.
- Roberts, Peter. (2000). Alex Haley and Our Roots.
New York Oxford Press.
- Discussing books or magazines
- Alex Haley is well known for his books The
- of Malcolm X and Roots The Saga of an American
- Paraphrasing one author
- Chickens made less money than cows throughout the
- nineteenth century (Arbogast, 2005).
- Paraphrasing two authors
- King Louis X forbade chickens to gather in public
in 1880 (Mitton
- and Reid, 2005).
In-Text Citations (cont.)
Paraphrasing more than two authors Chickens were
often punished for offenses by cutting off their
food supplies (Reid et al., 2005) Paraphrasing
an unknown author (Use title of work) The Great
Chicken Rebellion started in Truro, Nova Scotia
(The Year of the Chicken,2001).
- Less than 40 words Include within paper,
continue to double space, use quotation marks.
- Over 40 words Double-indent quoted passage and
single-space it, no quotation marks.
- Add citation at the end of quotations. Include
author, date, and page number
- The Great Chicken Rebellion was heralded as
the event that divided all of Canada. (Reid,
Make sure ALL ASPECTS of your paper are within
APA format!! (Reference page, title page, page
numbers) Check your handout!!
THE RESEARCH PROCESS
- Step One Generate a research question (what do I
want to know?)
- Step Two Break it up into smaller questions (How
will I find out?)
- Step Three Find information
- Step Four Organize information
- Step Five Formulate your argument
- Topic The Great Chicken Rebellion of 1933
- What caused the Great Chicken Rebellion of 1933?
- What conditions did the What changes were
- chickens live under? occurring in society
at the time?
- Were their rulers just or unjust?
- Generate key words for Library/Internet research,
based on your questions
- Get background info (5 Ws)
- Scan sources for important details BUT also read
- Take organized notes!!
- DO NOT PLAGIARIZE!
- Use credible, reliable sources...
Evaluating your sources
- Author/Organization (Are they an expert? Do they
have an agenda?)
- Language (Strong? Vague? Positive? Negative)
- Quality of argument (What information are they
basing it on?)
- Sources sources (how/where did they get their
Sources Strong vs. Shaky
- Peer-Reviewed Journals
- Academic Databases
- News, web sites or other media (SOMETIMES)
- The first thing you find on Google
- Student Essays
- Open sites (e.g. Wikipedia can be a starting
- News, web sites or other media (SOMETIMES)
Organizing your information
- Remember your questions
- Sort and sift Does this information answer the
- Arrange information according to question or idea
- Draw conclusions
- Synthesize your information How does it answer
the bigger research question?
What conditions did the chickens live under?What
were their rulers like?What changes were going
on in society at the time?
During the 20th century, chickens were very
poor. The king of the land jailed chickens
without trial regularly. Officials made laws
that prevented chickens from going to school or
publishing books or newspapers
A secret school formed in 1925 that taught
chickens to read and write The number of
chicken protest marches increased between
1920 and 1930
No chickens owned land Police searched Chicken
houses regularly. Chickens were only paid 10
cents an hour, while most humans were paid 30
cents an hour. Chickens started to publish
Hundreds of Chickens starved between 1920 and 1930
- Question 1 What conditions did Chickens live
- During the twentieth century, chickens were very
- Hundreds of chickens starved between 1920 and
- Chickens were only paid 10 cents an hour, while
- paid 30 cents an hour
- Question 2 What were their rulers like?
- The king passed laws preventing chickens from
going to school.
- Police searched the houses of chickens regularly.
- Chickens were jailed without trial regularly.
- Question 3 What changes were happening in
- Chickens started to publish illegal newspapers
- A secret school formed for Chickens
- The number of protest marches increased
What conclusions can we come to for each
question? What general conclusion can we come
to for our research question?
Answering Research Questions
- Chickens lived in extreme poverty.
- Chickens were ruled by an oppressive state.
- Chickens were becoming more educated about their
What caused the Great Chicken Rebellion of 1933?
The Chicken Rebellion of 1933 was a result of
extreme poverty, an oppressive state, and
education about Chicken rights.
WRITING YOUR PAPERMACROSTRUCTURE
- Main argument or focus of your paper
- Maps out the paper
- Often answers the questions why? and how?
- Very close, if not identical, to your research
- Last sentence in your introductory paragraph
- Should be specific and manageable!
- Poor The Great Chicken Rebellion of 1933
affected Canada in negative and positive ways.
- Better The Great Chicken Rebellion of 1933
affected Canada politically, economically,
socially and culturally.
- Poor The Great Chicken Rebellion was caused by
the anger and frustration of chickens
- Better The Great Chicken Rebellion was a result
of extreme chicken poverty, an oppressive state,
and education for Chicken Rights.
MAKE AN OUTLINE!!
- Break down your thesis into smaller points
- Irons out bare bones of your information
- Insert your research, in order, as supporting
- Will save you time in the end!
Thesis The Chicken Rebellion was a result of
extreme chicken poverty, an oppressive state and
education for Chicken Rights.
- Argument One Extreme poverty provoked chickens
to take action for their rights.
- -supporting details
- Argument Two State oppression caused chicken
activists to turn to violence.
- -supporting details
- Argument Three Chicken education spread
awareness among chickens about their rights.
- -supporting details
- Attracts the interest of the reader
- Gives background information
- Discusses the general focus of the paper
- Presents the thesis statement
Poor The purpose of this essay is to tell you
about the Great Chicken Rebellion. The Great
Chicken Rebellion was when all of the Chickens in
Atlantic Canada fought for their rights. The
first riot that started the rebellion was in
Halifax. The poverty that the chickens lived in
will be examined. State oppression and education
will also be discussed. All of these things
caused the rebellion.
Better Chickens all over Canada still read their
children stories of the Great Chicken Rebellion
of 1933. The Rebellion was an event that secured
human rights for chickens in the laws of our
nation. These rights were hard won, but fought
for out of necessity and desperation. Beginning
in the early 1900s, the state had begun to
suppress the freedoms of chickens and poverty
among chickens became widespread. However,
Clandestine groups of chickens began to organize
and find ways to educate their peers about their
natural rights. The Great Chicken Rebellion
resulted from extreme chicken poverty, an
oppressive state and education for chicken
- Breaks your thesis down into smaller arguments
- Topic sentence mini-thesis
- Presents your supporting evidence
- Tells the reader so what? and relates us back
to the thesis
Poor Many chickens were starving in Canada. John
Jacob, a Chicken from Pictou, was an influential
writer for secret newspapers in Nova Scotia.
Chickens usually didnt make enough money to buy
food for the month. Many chickens went to work
hungry. They started to demonstrate in the
streets to protest bread prices.
Better Extreme poverty started to provoke
chickens to take action for their rights. In the
early 1900s, many chickens lived in poverty, and
the situation worsened as the century progressed.
In 1903, fifty per cent of chickens lived below
the poverty line in Canada, while by 1925,
seventy-five per cent were living in poverty
(Reid, 2004). In The Chicken Diaries (2003),
Jones describes the plight of many chickens she
met in Legal Aid office who could not even afford
to feed their families. Moreover, it was almost
impossible to break out of this poverty-- laws
prevented chickens from making more than ten
cents an hour, which did not even cover the
cheapest rent, and few chickens owned land or
capital (Jones, 2003). In 1930, a series of
protests began against the prices of bread and
the wage laws. These demonstrations became
increasingly violent over the next three years.
In 1930, there were eight protests across Canada
and all were nonviolent. In 1932, there were
fifty protests across Canada, twenty of which
became violent, despite increased police security
at demonstrations (Reid, 2004). Anger was
fermenting over harsh living conditions and the
chickens were starting to demand changes.
- Reiterates your thesis
- Sums up your main arguments
- Wraps up Gives the reader an overall so what?
- Comments further, but does NOT present new
- Should have a sense of finality-- dont just
Poor After the chickens started publishing more
information about rights and how to protest and
rebel and stuff, chickens started to protest
more. Chickens found out that they were smart
too. They realized that their lives were harsh
compared to humans and cows, and that they were
unequal. They started to push for laws that would
state their equal rights. In this paper, we saw
how poverty, state oppression, and education
helped them do this.
Better The Chicken Rebellion was a result of
extreme chicken poverty, an oppressive state, and
education for chicken rights. All of these forces
combined to create a climate in which change was
both necessary and desirable. Conditions of
extreme poverty drove chickens to protest against
the unequal distribution of wealth and improve
their situation. Excessive state repression
provoked chickens to risk their lives for
personal freedoms of the next generation.
Finally, secret schools became the centre for
radical thoughts on rights and freedoms, and
these ideas were propelled into secret newspapers
and speeches at secret meetings. Discontent and
desperation were channeled into newly organized
and educated activist groups, who planned and
promoted a rebellion for a receptive Chicken
public. Though the battle was long and difficult,
many chickens today celebrate these ancestors
who fought for the freedoms and rights they
MAKING A CONVINCINGARGUMENT
Hierarchy of evidence
- Chickens were oppressed by the state.
- Reason/Elaboration (Why? How?)
- The King of Canada took several steps to ensure
that chicken rights were limited.
- Evidence/Example (Who? What? When? Where?)
- In 1925, he passed a law preventing chickens from
going to school.
- Source (Someone else who said it!)
- (Arbogast, 2002)
YOU ARE THE EXPERT!
MICROSTRUCTURE A TEACHERS PET PEEVES
Peeve 1 Tiny, preventable errors
- Alot v.s. a lot
- Its v.s. its
- 10 v.s. ten
- Dont v.s. Do not
- Theyre, There, and Their
- Then v.s. Than
- Informal language
Peeve 2 Confused Commas
- Unnecessary commas The demonstration began,
around noon, all chickens were present, no one
had forgotten this important day.
- Try The demonstration began around noon and all
- chickens were present. No one had forgotten this
- important day.
- No pause or comma The chickens were waiting in
the field the humans were inside the building the
cows were anxious we waited for a long time.
- Try The chickens were waiting in the field, the
humans were inside the building, and the cows
were anxious. We waited for a long time.
Peeve 3 The never-ending sentence
- Annoying Some believe the rebellion began with
the riots in Truro, where experts say most of the
learning and secret organizing took place and the
earliest newspapers were published, the first
major protest about bread prices took place on
Prince street and inspired demonstrations across
Canada, which first made the public aware that
chickens wanted more rights.
Try Some believe the rebellion began with riots
in Truro. Experts say most of the learning and
secret organizing took place in this area. The
earliest chicken newspapers were published here.
To carry on the tradition, the first major
protest against bread prices took place on Prince
street and sparked a nation-wide rebellion, which
first made the public aware of the fight for
Peeve 4 The wandering paragraph
- Annoying Chickens thought they were deserving of
more rights and freedoms. Poverty was a huge
problem. Chickens were not even allowed to go to
school. They started to get angry and organize
protests. Secret schools started. Some chickens
went to work hungry and couldnt work well, so
were fired by their bosses. The fact that
chickens did not make a lot of money caused
Try Poverty and state repression caused unrest
among chickens. Many lived in poverty, and wages
for chickens were lower than those for others.
Some chickens would even go to work hungry, not
perform well, be fired, and become even more
destitute. They could not improve their situation
through education because the king passed laws
preventing them from going to school. Chickens
became increasingly frustrated and organized
secret schools and activist groups. In the
curriculum and at meetings, they discussed the
lack of rights and freedoms they experienced. As
a result, protests and demonstration marches
became more frequent.
Peeve 5 Huh?(What exactly do you mean by
- Annoying The demonstrations helped chickens by
the attention from the public that it gives them
and the rights that they had after.
- Try Demonstrations helped chickens promote their
cause because they attracted attention from the
public. After the rebellion, many chicken experts
believed that the demonstrations, more than
anything else, informed the public of the
conditions endured by chickens.
GOOD LUCK AND HAVE FUN!
Writing a Research PaperReferencesIn-Text CitationsIn-Text Citations (cont.)Paraphrasing more than two authors Chickens wereoften punished for offenses by cutting off theirfood supplies (Reid et al., 2005) Paraphrasingan unknown author (Use title of work) The GreatChicken Rebellion started in Truro, Nova Scotia(The Year of the Chicken,2001).QuotationsMake sure ALL ASPECTS of your paper are withinAPA format!! (Reference page, title page, pagenumbers) Check your handout!!THE RESEARCH PROCESSGetting StartedResearch QuestionsFinding InformationEvaluating your sourcesSources Strong vs. ShakyOrganizing your informationWhat conditions did the chickens live under?Whatwere their rulers like?What changes were goingon in society at the time?During the 20th century, chickens were verypoor. The king of the land jailed chickenswithout trial regularly. Officials made lawsthat prevented chickens from going to school orpublishing books or newspapersA secret school formed in 1925 that taughtchickens to read and write The number ofchicken protest marches increased between1920 and 1930No chickens owned land Police searched Chickenhouses regularly. Chickens were only paid 10cents an hour, while most humans were paid 30cents an hour. Chickens started to publishsecret newspapersHundreds of Chickens starved between 1920 and 1930What conclusions can we come to for eachquestion? What general conclusion can we cometo for our research question?Answering Research QuestionsWhat caused the Great Chicken Rebellion of 1933?The Chicken Rebellion of 1933 was a result ofextreme poverty, an oppressive state, andeducation about Chicken rights.WRITING YOUR PAPERMACROSTRUCTUREThesisThesis ExamplesMAKE AN OUTLINE!!Thesis The Chicken Rebellion was a result ofextreme chicken poverty, an oppressive state andeducation for Chicken Rights.IntroductionPoor The purpose of this essay is to tell youabout the Great Chicken Rebellion. The GreatChicken Rebellion was when all of the Chickens inAtlantic Canada fought for their rights. Thefirst riot that started the rebellion was inHalifax. The poverty that the chickens lived inwill be examined. State oppression and educationwill also be discussed. All of these thingscaused the rebellion.Better Chickens all over Canada still read theirchildren stories of the Great Chicken Rebellionof 1933. The Rebellion was an event that securedhuman rights for chickens in the laws of ournation. These rights were hard won, but foughtfor out of necessity and desperation. Beginningin the early 1900s, the state had begun tosuppress the freedoms of chickens and povertyamong chickens became widespread. However,Clandestine groups of chickens began to organizeand find ways to educate their peers about theirnatural rights. The Great Chicken Rebellionresulted from extreme chicken poverty, anoppressive state and education for chickenrights.BodyPoor Many chickens were starving in Canada. JohnJacob, a Chicken from Pictou, was an influentialwriter for secret newspapers in Nova Scotia.Chickens usually didnt make enough money to buyfood for the month. Many chickens went to workhungry. They started to demonstrate in thestreets to protest bread prices.Better Extreme poverty started to provokechickens to take action for their rights. In theearly 1900s, many chickens lived in poverty, andthe situation worsened as the century progressed.In 1903, fifty per cent of chickens lived belowthe poverty line in Canada, while by 1925,seventy-five per cent were living in poverty(Reid, 2004). In The Chicken Diaries (2003),Jones describes the plight of many chickens shemet in Legal Aid office who could not even affordto feed their families. Moreover, it was almostimpossible to break out of this poverty-- lawsprevented chickens from making more than tencents an hour, which did not even cover thecheapest rent, and few chickens owned land orcapital (Jones, 2003). In 1930, a series ofprotests began against the prices of bread andthe wage laws. These demonstrations becameincreasingly violent over the next three years.In 1930, there were eight protests across Canadaand all were nonviolent. In 1932, there werefifty protests across Canada, twenty of whichbecame violent, despite increased police securityat demonstrations (Reid, 2004). Anger wasfermenting over harsh living conditions and thechickens were starting to demand changes.ConclusionPoor After the chickens started publishing moreinformation about rights and how to protest andrebel and stuff, chickens started to protestmore. Chickens found out that they were smarttoo. They realized that their lives were harshcompared to humans and cows, and that they wereunequal. They started to push for laws that wouldstate their equal rights. In this paper, we sawhow poverty, state oppression, and educationhelped them do this.Better The Chicken Rebellion was a result ofextreme chicken poverty, an oppressive state, andeducation for chicken rights. All of these forcescombined to create a climate in which change wasboth necessary and desirable. Conditions ofextreme poverty drove chickens to protest againstthe unequal distribution of wealth and improvetheir situation. Excessive state repressionprovoked chickens to risk their lives forpersonal freedoms of the next generation.Finally, secret schools became the centre forradical thoughts on rights and freedoms, andthese ideas were propelled into secret newspapersand speeches at secret meetings. Discontent anddesperation were channeled into newly organizedand educated activist groups, who planned andpromoted a rebellion for a receptive Chickenpublic. Though the battle was long and difficult,many chickens today celebrate these ancestorswho fought for the freedoms and rights theyenjoy.MAKING A CONVINCINGARGUMENTHierarchy of evidenceYOU ARE THE EXPERT!MICROSTRUCTURE A TEACHERS PET PEEVESPeeve 1 Tiny, preventable errorsPeeve 2 Confused CommasPeeve 3 The never-ending sentenceTry Some believe the rebellion began with riotsin Truro. Experts say most of the learning andsecret organizing took place in this area. Theearliest chicken newspapers were published here.To carry on the tradition, the first majorprotest against bread prices took place on Princestreet and sparked a nation-wide rebellion, whichfirst made the public aware of the fight forchicken rights.Peeve 4 The wandering paragraphTry Poverty and state repression caused unrestamong chickens. Many lived in poverty, and wagesfor chickens were lower than those for others.Some chickens would even go to work hungry, notperform well, be fired, and become even moredestitute. They could not improve their situationthrough education because the king passed lawspreventing them from going to school. Chickensbecame increasingly frustrated and organizedsecret schools and activist groups. In thecurriculum and at meetings, they discussed thelack of rights and freedoms they experienced. Asa result, protests and demonstration marchesbecame more frequent.Peeve 5 Huh?(What exactly do you mean bythat?)GOOD LUCK AND HAVE FUN!
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Abortion Research Paper Examples
Abortion is a complex issue with many individuals debating about its legality, whether it is murder, the inhumane procedures used to carry out the procedure successfully, and the various medical and health situations that support the abortion practice. Consequently, it is crucial for students to learn about the practice despite the opinions that one may have towards it. Thus the various Abortion Research Paper Examples, that will guide you as you write the paper.
You need to conduct research on the topic before writing about it. The research will enable you to find content on the issue and increase your understanding of the topic. Research the following areas:
- The meaning of abortion
- The reasons why individuals choose to have abortions
- The procedures of abortions
- The risks associated with abortion
You can also give your stand on the issue and any recommendations that women who are thinking about abortion should follow.
The Research Paper
You should write your paper after collecting enough information and understanding the topic. Remember to:
- Follow the requirements of the assignment
- Avoid plagiarism
- Provide quality work
- Avoid spelling and grammar mistakes
- Adhere to the word limits
- Follow the format specified by your teacher
Instructors look at a variety of things in addition to the content of your paper. Strictly adhere to the above points to avoid unnecessary penalties
Your essay will be divided in three: the introduction, body, and conclusion.
Your introduction should be informative and exciting to keep the reader glued to your essay. You can start the essay with a question, fact, or a quote. You should also define the topic in the introduction so that the reader can have an idea of what they will be reading. There are many sources online that have detailed definitions. One example is the Merriam-Webster Dictionary which defines abortion as pregnancy termination after, resulting in, closely followed by, or accompanied by the embryo or fetus’ death. It may occur during:
- The spontaneous removal of a human fetus within the first three months of gestation; or
- The induced removal of a human fetus
Remember to avoid plagiarism by quoting the source in the text and the reference page
The introduction should also inform the reader the constituents of your essay. In this case, you can state ‘the essay will cover….’ It is important to have a thesis statement in your introduction. Ensure that your introduction is not too wordy. It can cover half a page or less (unless instructed otherwise).
The body should contain the content that you researched. You can have topics and subtopics that will elaborate your content. Ensure that you handle different issues in different paragraphs. For instance, the reasons for conducting abortions should be in separate paragraphs from the paragraphs explaining the procedure.
Also remember that there are personal reasons for abortions like financial instability, Relationship problems, Unwillingness to be a mother and the responsibilities associated with it; and situations that force a mother to abort like health issues on the child or the mother. Differentiate the two reasons so that the reader can understand that some medical situations force a mother to abort.
Explain the procedure before, during, and after abortion. Pre-abortion procedures include counseling; looking for a licensed provider; and deciding to abort or giving birth and staying with the child or giving it out for adoption.
You do not have to give explicit details of the abortion procedure. Just provide the two options and explain them. The options include medical abortion and surgical abortion.
The post-abortion procedures include counseling and medical attention in case the individual faced some issues during the procedure. You can explain the risks associated with aborting here.
Remember to express your stand and provide any recommendations for the practice.
The conclusion of the research paper involves summing up the main points of your essay. You can provide a brief description of abortion, the reasons, the procedure, risks, and your recommendations.
Writing the essay will be easier once you adhere to these guidelines. Remember that writing involves expressing your stand to the readers. Therefore, be clear and concise.