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Writing scientific papers in english pdf

Jun 4, 2018

Scientific writing has been recognized as a key ingredient in
science and technology because of the need to share ideas and
findings. Distinguished scientists have stated that the writing of
a paper may account for “half the importance” of any scientific
work. Indeed, successfully publishing papers is the primary
indicator of a scientist’s performance. Yet students rarely receive
any training in scientific writing. Their only way to learn what the
main components of a paper are and how papers are organized
is by intuition, which may be ineffective and/or inefficient, or
by trial and error, which may waste a lot of their time and hurt
their confidence. Consequently, scientists at various levels in
their careers often end up writing papers with poor grammar
and structure and that lack clear focus. Many such papers do not
get published despite their valuable contributions.

Having to communicate in English is necessary in today’s
world. English is now the lingua franca not only of science, but
also of the speedy communications we depend on, namely the
Internet, the World Wide Web, social media, crowdsourcing,
and other information-sharing resources.
The challenge of producing well-written papers is especially
hard for non-native speakers of English, who account for the
majority of scientists around the world. Effective scientific writing
requires both mastery of the English language and proficiency in
the specific academic genre.
Many years of teaching courses in scientific writing have taught us that the combination of the language barrier and
the lack of knowledge of the academic writing style can have a
detrimental effect on the quality of writing produced by nonnatives
in English, and even by many who are native English speakers. In many cases, students are unable to identify
their main difficulties and whether these are the result of the
lack of English proficiency or of their poor organization of ideas.
Students seldom realize that it is harder to produce (that is,
write) in a foreign language than to consume (that is, read and
understand).
We have developed a strategy to tackle the problems faced
by writers who are new to the scientific writing genre and style.
This strategy can help both non-natives attempting to overcome
the language barrier and native speakers of English. The strategy
consists of using a variety of techniques and tools. Using this
strategy will help students grasp the skills necessary for language-independent
scientific writing. The strategy, its techniques, and
its tools are at the heart of this book. We provide a complete
roadmap for you, our reader, to learn the skills necessary to write
well and successfully.

Chapter 1 lays out the specific characteristics of scientific
writing and how it differs from other writing styles. Chapter 2 is
devoted to the models that define scientific writing.
You cannot write a good paper without reading good papers.
In Chapter 3, we offer you an efficient and effective technique
for reading many publications. This should
help you not only with your writing skills, but also with your
general research tasks. Chapter 3 will also teach you how to read
and annotate documents to build your own collection of well-written
text samples. This collection is referred to as a corpus.
Chapter 4 introduces the notion of corpus linguistics, which is
a linguistics-based approach that uses text collections to help
you determine the most appropriate language patterns for your
own writing. Chapter 5 walks you through a set of computer-based
tools that can guide you through the writing process and
help you verify that your writing achieves your goals as best as
possible. Finally, Chapter 6 teaches you how to systematically
identify textual patterns that are prevalent in each section of a
scientific paper. Learning to use these patterns well will aid you
in writing papers using the language and style accepted by your
research

Publishing your research in an international journal is key to your success in academia. This guide is based on a study of referees' reports and letters from journal editors on reasons why papers written by non-native researchers are rejected due to problems with English usage. It draws on English-related errors from around 5000 papers written by non-native authors, 500 abstracts by PhD students, and over 1000 hours of teaching researchers how to write and present research papers.

With easy-to-follow rules and tips, and with examples taken from published and unpublished papers, you will learn how to:

 Other books in the series:

English for Presentations at International Conferences

English for Academic Correspondence and Socializing

English for Research: Usage, Style, and Grammar

English for Academic Research: Grammar / Vocabulary / Writing Exercises

Adrian Wallwork is the author of more than 20 ELT and EAP textbooks. He has trained several thousand PhD students and academics from 35 countries to prepare and give presentations. Since 1984 he has been revising research papers, and in 2009 he set up englishforacademics.com – a proofreading and editing service specifically for researchers.

One of the greatest diseases is to be nobody to anybody. Mother Teresa

Scientific writing is recognized as a key ingredient in science and technology because of the need to share ideas and findings. According to distinguished scientists 'writing paper may account for “half the importance” of scientific work. Indeed, successfully publishing papers is the primary indicator of a scientist’s performance. Yet students rarely receive any training in scientific writing. Their only way to learn the main components of a paper and how papers are organized is by intuition, which is ineffective and inefficient, or by trial and error, which wastes a lot of their time and hurts their confidence. Consequently, scientists often write papers with poor grammar and structure lacking clear focus. Many such papers do not get published despite their valuable contributions. Having to communicate in English is necessary in today’s world. English is the lingua franca of science, and of the speedy communications we depend on, namely the Internet, the World Wide Web, social media, crowdsourcing, and other information-sharing resources. The challenge to produce well-written papers is especially hard for non-native speakers of English, the majority of scientists around the world. Effective scientific writing requires both mastery of the English language and proficiency in the specific academic genre. Many years of teaching courses in scientific writing have taught us that the combination of the language barrier and the lack of knowledge of the academic writing style can have a detrimental effect on the quality of writing produced by nonnatives in English. In many cases, students are unable to identify their main difficulties and whether these are the result of the lack of English proficiency or their poor organization of ideas. Students seldom realize that it is harder to produce (i.e., write) in a foreign language than to consume (that is, read and understand). We have developed a strategy to tackle the problems faced by writers who are new to the scientific writing genre and style. This strategy can help both non-natives attempting to overcome the language barrier and native speakers of English. The strategy consists of using a variety of techniques and tools. Using this strategy will help students grasp the skills necessary for language-independent scientific writing. The strategy, its techniques, and its tools are at the heart of this book. We provide a complete roadmap for you, our reader, to learn the skills necessary to write well and successfully. This book is divided into two parts: the first part provides the theoretical foundations of scientific writing. The second part details the strategies, techniques, and tools that are at the heart of our approach. Chapter 1 lays out the characteristics of scientific writing and how it differs from other writing styles. Chapter 2 is devoted to the models that define scientific writing. You cannot write a good paper without reading good papers. In Chapter 3, we offer you an efficient and effective technique for reading many papers (and other publications). This should help you not only with your writing skills, but also with your general research tasks. Chapter 3 will also teach you how to read and annotate documents to build your own collection of well-written text samples. This collection is referred to as a corpus. Chapter 4 introduces the notion of corpus linguistics, which is a linguistics-based approach that uses text collections to help you determine the most appropriate language patterns for your own writing. Chapter 5 walks you through a set of computer-based tools that can guide you through the writing process and help you verify that your writing achieves your goals as best as possible. Finally, Chapter 6 teaches you how to systematically identify textual patterns that are prevalent in each section of a scientific paper. Learning to use these patterns well will aid you in writing papers using the language and style accepted by your research community.

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